п»їThe Great Galveston Hurricane of 1900 continue to stands as the most devastating all-natural disaster inside the history of the United States, with casualties reaching in least six thousand. Many houses and properties did not stand a chance up against the high velocity winds the fact that storm create, and the huge waves triggered massive damage, nearly submerging the entire tropical isle. To prevent this kind of devastation again, Galveston acquired two executive marvels set up, the seawall and the quality raising with the island. This paper can examine the raising with the seawall plus the grade raising of the area of Galveston as a result of the truly amazing hurricane of 1900. Those two feats of engineering will probably be proven from this paper as the biggest issues that Galveston faced to ensure that a disaster just like the hurricane of 1900 would not happen to that level again, a challenge the fact that people of Galveston were more than willing to consider.
More than a year after the disaster and the execution of a commission payment form of government, a committee under the fresh government was put in place for growing engineers to plan protection for the city against hard storms. 1 The committee equiped a board of technical engineers that included General They would. M. Robert, Alfred Rspectable, and H. C. Ripley, and they had been instructed to develop the most dependable and most efficient ways of protecting the city, increasing the city's grade, and developing a seawall to prevent flood in case of a storm. 2 The engineers shortly got a report to present to the public. In the report they pointed out first grading research showing the highest stage on the island was 8. being unfaithful feet as well as the average was 5. almost eight feet and going as little as 3. several feet. a few The Plank then proposed a several mile long solid cement wall because tall since 17 feet, 1 . a few feet taller than the top point of flooding reached by the surprise of early 1900s. The Board also proposed the bringing up of the town grade. some The three engineers calculated the price at $1, 294, 755 for the seawall and $2, 210, 285 intended for the grade raising; the total cost of the complete project will be roughly $3, 500, 500. 5 In figure you, the pitch is in map form, depicting where exactly the sea wall structure will
Figure 1 ) Map with seawall and grade raising proposal and cost estimates. Source: University of North Texas Your local library, The Portal To Tx History become built along the coast, as well as the height in the grade raise from the seawall, gradually decreasing in height as it goes more deeply into the isle. Public and support quickly came to the proposal yet financing the $3. a few million task was yet another challenge. 6
Galveston County undertook the construction of the seawall but necessary the permission of two-thirds of the taxpayers in the county before any kind of bonds pertaining to the seawall could be given. 7 Eighty-four percent of the bonds' purchase price had recently been pledged before the county can request for the $1. 5 million concern to go to a vote and March 20, 1902, a 98% voter turnout approved the relationship issue consent 3, 119 to 22. 8 An overwhelming turnout of support intended for the seawall by the open public showed which the public dependable in this fresh plan to shield the city. Following the bitter loss from the storm of 1900, the public of Galveston was ready to agree to a new strategy of safety. With loans secured, Galveston County shifted forward together with the plans to build the seawall. A newsletter of the seawall specifications was launched in June of 1902 and a few a few months later, in September, the county shut down a structure contract with J. Meters. O'Rourke and Company of Denver to develop the seawall. 9
Construction for the seawall started out on March 28, 1902 with the establishing of the initially piles. 15 Construction used the requirements of the committee of technicians, with the part facing the gulf using a curve to deflect waves upward. 14 In determine 2, the seaward aspect of the wall membrane is shown with the riprap in place to help protect the seawall against erosion; the image also displays the curvy curve with the wall to deflect dunes upward rather than...